KEY STAGE 1

Children in Years 1 and 2 will be given a really solid foundation in the basic building blocks of mental and written arithmetic. Through being taught place value, children will develop an understanding of how numbers work, so that they are confident with 2-digit numbers and beginning to read and say numbers above 100.

Addition and Subtraction: A focus on number bonds, first via practical hands-on experiences and subsequently using memorisation techniques, enables a good grounding in these crucial facts, and ensures that all children leave Year 2 knowing the pairs of numbers which make all the numbers up to 10 at least. Children will also have experienced and been taught pairs to 20. Children’s knowledge of number facts enables them to add several 1-digit numbers, and to add/subtract a 1-digit number to/from a 2-digit number. Another important conceptual tool is the ability to add/subtract 1 or 10, and to understand which digit changes and why. This understanding is extended to enable children to add and subtract multiples of 10 to and from any 2-digit number. The most important application of this knowledge is the ability to add or subtract any pair of 2-digit numbers by counting on or back in 10s and 1s. Children may extend this to adding by partitioning numbers into 10s and 1s.

Multiplication and Division: Children will be taught to count in 2s, 3s, 5s and 10s, and will relate this skill to repeated addition. Children will meet and begin to learn the associated ×2, ×3, ×5 and ×10 tables. Engaging in a practical way with the concept of repeated addition and the use of arrays enables children to develop a preliminary understanding of multiplication, and asking them to consider how many groups of a given number make a total will introduce them to the idea of division. Children will also be taught to double and halve numbers, and will thus experience scaling up or down as a further aspect of multiplication and division.

Fractions: Fractions will be introduced as numbers and as operators, specifically in relation to halves, quarters and thirds.

Year 1

Mental calculation

Written calculation

Default for ALL children

Y1
+

Number bonds (‘story’ of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10)

Count on in 1s from a given 2-digit number

Add two 1-digit numbers

Add three 1-digit numbers, spotting doubles or pairs to 10

Count on in 10s from any given 2-digit number

Add 10 to any given 2-digit number

Use number facts to add 1-digit numbers to
2-digit numbers

e.g. Use 4 + 3 to work out 24 + 3, 34 + 3

Add by putting the larger number first

Pairs with a total of 10

Count in 1s

Count in 10s

Count on 1 from any given 2-digit number

Y1
 

Number bonds (‘story’ of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10)

Count back in 1s from a given 2-digit number

Subtract one 1-digit number from another

Count back in 10s from any given 2-digit number

Subtract 10 from any given 2-digit number

Use number facts to subtract 1-digit numbers from 2-digit numbers

e.g. Use 7 – 2 to work out 27 – 2, 37 – 2

Pairs with a total of 10

Count back in 1s from 20 to 0

Count back in 10s from 100 to 0

Count back 1 from any given 2-digit number

Y1
×
 

Begin to count in 2s, 5s and 10s

Begin to say what three 5s are by counting in 5s, or what four 2s are by counting in 2s, etc.

Double numbers to 10

Begin to count in 2s and 10s

Double numbers to 5 using fingers

Y1
÷

Begin to count in 2s, 5s and 10s

Find half of even numbers to 12 and know it is hard to halve odd numbers

Find half of even numbers by sharing

Begin to use visual and concrete arrays or
‘sets of’ to find how many sets of a small number make a larger number

Begin to count in 2s and 10s

Find half of even numbers by sharing


Year 2

Mental calculation

Written calculation

Default for ALL children

Y2
+

Number bonds – know all the pairs of numbers which make all the numbers to 12, and pairs with a total of 20

Count on in 1s and 10s from any given 2-digit number

Add two or three 1-digit numbers

Add a 1-digit number to any 2-digit number using number facts, including bridging multiples of 10

e.g. 45 + 4
e.g. 38 + 7

Add 10 and small multiples of 10 to any given

2-digit number

Add any pair of 2-digit numbers

Know pairs of numbers which make each total up to 10

Add two 1-digit numbers

Add a 1-digit number to a 2-digit number by counting on in 1s

Add 10 and small multiples of 10 to a 2-digit number by counting on in 10s

Y2
 

Number bonds – know all the pairs of numbers which make all the numbers to 12

Count back in 1s and 10s from any given 2-digit number

Subtract a 1-digit number from any 2-digit number using number facts, including bridging multiples of 10

e.g. 56 – 3
e.g. 53 – 5

Subtract 10 and small multiples of 10 from any given 2-digit number

Subtract any pair of 2-digit numbers by counting back in 10s and 1s or by counting up

Know pairs of numbers which make each total up to 10

Subtract a 1-digit number from a 2-digit number by counting back in 1s

Subtract 10 and small multiples of 10 from a
2-digit number by counting back in 10s

Y2
×
 

Count in 2s, 5s and 10s

Begin to count in 3s

Begin to understand that multiplication is repeated addition and to use arrays

e.g. 3 × 4 is three rows of 4 dots

Begin to learn the ×2, ×3, ×5 and ×10 tables, seeing these as ‘lots of’

e.g. 5 lots of 2, 6 lots of 2, 7 lots of 2

Double numbers up to 20

Begin to double multiples of 5 to 100

Begin to double 2-digit numbers less than 50 with 1s digits of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5

Count in 2s, 5s and 10s

Begin to use and understand simple arrays

e.g. 2 × 4 is two lots of four

Double numbers up to 10

Double multiples of 10 to 50

Y2
÷

Count in 2s, 5s and 10s

Begin to count in 3s

Using fingers, say where a given number is in the 2s, 5s or 10s count

e.g. 8 is the fourth number when I count in 2s

Relate division to grouping

e.g. How many groups of 5 in 15?

Halve numbers to 20

Begin to halve numbers to 40 and multiples of 10 to 100

Find 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 3/4 of a quantity of objects and of amounts (whole number answers)

Count in 2s, 5s and 10s

Say how many rows in a given array

e.g. How many rows of 5 are in an array of
3 × 5?

Halve numbers to 12

Find 1/2 of amounts









LOWER KEY STAGE 2 

In Lower Key Stage 2, children build on the concrete and conceptual understandings they have gained in Key Stage 1 to develop a real mathematical understanding of the four operations, in particular developing arithmetical competence in relation to larger numbers.

Addition and subtraction: Children are taught to use place value and number facts to add and subtract numbers mentally and they will develop a range of strategies to enable them to discard the ‘counting in 1s’ or fingers-based methods of Key Stage 1. In particular, children will learn to add and subtract multiples and near multiples of 10, 100 and 1000, and will become fluent in complementary addition as an accurate means of achieving fast and accurate answers to 3-digit subtractions. Standard written methods for adding larger numbers are taught, learned and consolidated, and written column subtraction is also introduced.

Multiplication and division: This key stage is also the period during which all the multiplication and division facts are thoroughly memorised, including all facts up to 12 × 12. Efficient written methods for multiplying or dividing a 2-digit or 3-digit number by a 1-digit number are taught, as are mental strategies for multiplication or division with large but ‘friendly’ numbers, e.g. when dividing by 5 or multiplying by 20.

Fractions and decimals: Children will develop their understanding of fractions, learning to reduce a fraction to its simplest form, as well as finding non-unit fractions of amounts and quantities. The concept of a decimal number is introduced and children consolidate a firm understanding of 1-place decimals, multiplying and dividing whole numbers by 10 and 100.

Year 3

Mental calculation

Written calculation

Default for ALL children

Y3
+

Know pairs with each total to 20

e.g. 2 + 6 = 8, 12 + 6 = 18, 7 + 8 = 15

Know pairs of multiples of 10 with a total of 100

Add any two 2-digit numbers by counting on in 10s and 1s or by using partitioning

Add multiples and near multiples of 10 and 100

Perform place-value additions without a struggle

e.g. 300 + 8 + 50 = 358

Use place value and number facts to add a
1-digit or 2-digit number to a 3-digit number

e.g. 104 + 56 is 160 since 104 + 50 = 154 and 6 + 4 = 10

676 + 8 is 684 since 8 = 4 + 4 and

76 + 4 + 4 = 84

Add pairs of ‘friendly’ 3-digit numbers

e.g. 320 + 450

Begin to add amounts of money using partitioning

Use expanded column addition to add two or three 3-digit numbers or three 2-digit numbers

Begin to use compact column addition to add numbers with 3 digits

Begin to add like fractions

e.g. 3/8 + 1/8 + 1/8

Recognise fractions that add to 1

e.g. 1/4 + 3/4
e.g. 3/5 + 2/5

Know pairs of numbers which make each total up to 10, and which total 20

Add two 2-digit numbers by counting on in 10s and 1s

e.g. 56 + 35 is 56 + 30 and then add the 5

Understand simple place-value additions

e.g. 200 + 40 + 5 = 245

Use place value to add multiples of 10 or 100

Y3
 

Know pairs with each total to 20

e.g. 8 – 2 = 6
e.g. 18 – 6 = 12
e.g. 15 – 8 = 7

Subtract any two 2-digit numbers

Perform place-value subtractions without a struggle

e.g. 536 – 30 = 506

Subtract 2-digit numbers from numbers > 100 by counting up

e.g. 143 – 76 is done by starting at 76. Then add 4 (80), then add 20 (100), then add 43, making the difference a total of 67

Subtract multiples and near multiples of 10 and 100

Subtract, when appropriate, by counting back or taking away, using place value and number facts

Find change from £1, £5 and £10

Use counting up as an informal written strategy for subtracting pairs of 3-digit numbers

e.g. 423 – 357

Begin to subtract like fractions

e.g. 7/83/8

Know pairs of numbers which make each total up to 10, and which total 20

Count up to subtract 2-digit numbers

e.g. 72 – 47

Subtract multiples of 5 from 100 by counting up

e.g. 100 – 35

Subtract multiples of 10 and 100

Y3
×

Know by heart all the multiplication facts in the
×2, ×3, ×4, ×5, ×8 and ×10 tables

Multiply whole numbers by 10 and 100

Recognise that multiplication is commutative

Use place value and number facts in mental multiplication

e.g. 30 × 5 is 15 × 10

Partition teen numbers to multiply by a 1-digit number

e.g. 3 × 14 as 3 × 10 and 3 × 4

Double numbers up to 50

Use partitioning (grid multiplication) to multiply
2-digit and 3-digit numbers by ‘friendly’ 1-digit numbers

Know by heart the ×2, ×3, ×5 and ×10 tables

Double given tables facts to get others

Double numbers up to 25 and multiples of 5 to 50

Y3
÷

Know by heart all the division facts derived from the ×2, ×3, ×4, ×5, ×8 and ×10 tables

Divide whole numbers by 10 or 100 to give whole number answers

Recognise that division is not commutative

Use place value and number facts in mental division

e.g. 84 ÷ 4 is half of 42

Divide larger numbers mentally by subtracting the 10th multiple as appropriate, including those with remainders

e.g. 57 ÷ 3 is 10 + 9 as 10 × 3 = 30 and
9 ×
3 = 27

Halve even numbers to 100, halve odd numbers to 20

Perform divisions just above the 10th multiple using horizontal or vertical jottings and understanding how to give a remainder as a whole number

Find unit fractions of quantities and begin to find non-unit fractions of quantities

Know by heart the division facts derived from the ×2, ×3, ×5 and ×10 tables

Halve even numbers up to 50 and multiples of 10 to 100

Perform divisions within the tables including those with remainders

e.g. 38 ÷ 5

Year 4

Mental calculation

Written calculation

Default for ALL children

Y4
+

Add any two 2-digit numbers by partitioning or counting on

Know by heart/quickly derive number bonds
to 100 and to £1

Add to the next 100, £1 and whole number

e.g. 234 + 66 = 300
e.g. 3·4 + 0·6 = 4

Perform place-value additions without a struggle

e.g. 300 + 8 + 50 + 4000 = 4358

Add multiples and near multiples of 10, 100 and 1000

Add £1, 10p, 1p to amounts of money

Use place value and number facts to add 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-digit numbers where a mental calculation is appropriate

e.g. 4004 + 156 by knowing that 6 + 4 = 10 and that 4004 + 150 = 4154 so the total is 4160

Column addition for 3-digit and 4-digit numbers

e.g.

Add like fractions

e.g. 3/5 + 4/5 = 7/5 = 1 2/5

Be confident with fractions that add to 1 and fraction complements to 1

e.g. 2/3 + _ = 1

Add any 2-digit numbers by partitioning or counting on

Number bonds to 20

Know pairs of multiples of 10 with a total of 100

Add ‘friendly’ larger numbers using knowledge of place value and number facts

Use expanded column addition to add 3-digit numbers

Y4

Subtract any two 2-digit numbers

Know by heart/quickly derive number bonds to 100

Perform place-value subtractions without a struggle

e.g. 4736 – 706 = 4030

Subtract multiples and near multiples of 10, 100, 1000, £1 and 10p

Subtract multiples of 0·1

Subtract by counting up

e.g. 503 – 368 is done by adding
368 + 2 + 30 + 100 + 3 (so we added 135)

Subtract, when appropriate, by counting back or taking away, using place value and number facts

Subtract £1, 10p, 1p from amounts of money

Find change from £10, £20 and £50

Use expanded column subtraction for 3- and
4-digit numbers

Use complementary addition to subtract amounts of money, and for subtractions where the larger number is a near multiple of 1000 or 100

e.g. 2002 – 1865

Subtract like fractions

e.g. 4/5 3/5 = 1/5

Use fractions that add to 1 to find fraction complements to 1

e.g. 1 – 2/3 = 1/3

Use counting up with confidence to solve most subtractions, including finding complements to multiples of 100

e.g. 512 – 287
e.g. 67 + _ = 100

Y4
×

Know by heart all the multiplication facts up to
12 × 12

Recognise factors up to 12 of 2-digit numbers

Multiply whole numbers and 1-place decimals by 10, 100, 1000

Multiply multiples of 10, 100 and 1000 by 1-digit numbers

e.g. 300 × 6
e.g. 4000 × 8

Use understanding of place value and number facts in mental multiplication

e.g. 36 × 5 is half of 36 × 10
e.g. 50 × 60 = 3000

Partition 2-digit numbers to multiply by a 1-digit number mentally

e.g. 4 × 24 as 4 × 20 and 4 × 4

Multiply near multiples by rounding

e.g. 33 × 19 as (33 × 20) – 33

Find doubles to double 100 and beyond using partitioning

Begin to double amounts of money

e.g. £35·60 doubled is £71·20

Use a vertical written method to multiply a 1-digit number by a 3-digit number (ladder method)

Use an efficient written method to multiply a

2-digit number by a number between 10 and 20 by partitioning (grid method)

Know by heart multiplication tables up to
10 × 10

Multiply whole numbers by 10 and 100

Use the grid method to multiply a 2-digit or a
3-digit number by a number ≤ 6

Y4
÷

Know by heart all the division facts up to
144 ÷ 12

Divide whole numbers by 10, 100, to give whole number answers or answers with 1 decimal place

Divide multiples of 100 by 1-digit numbers using division facts

e.g. 3200 ÷ 8 = 400

Use place value and number facts in mental division

e.g. 245 ÷ 20 is half of 245 ÷ 10

Divide larger numbers mentally by subtracting the 10th or 20th multiple as appropriate

e.g. 156 ÷ 6 is 20 + 6 as 20 × 6 = 120 and
6 ×
6 = 36

Find halves of even numbers to 200 and beyond using partitioning

Begin to halve amounts of money

e.g. half of £52·40 is £26·20

Use a written method to divide a 2-digit or a
3-digit number by a 1-digit number

Give remainders as whole numbers

Begin to reduce fractions to their simplest forms

Find unit and non-unit fractions of larger amounts

Know by heart all the division facts up to
100 ÷ 10

Divide whole numbers by 10 and 100 to give whole number answers or answers with
1 decimal place

Perform divisions just above the 10th multiple using the written layout and understanding how to give a remainder as a whole number

Find unit fractions of amounts









UPPER KEY STAGE 2

Children move on from dealing mainly with whole numbers to performing arithmetic operations with both decimals and fractions.

Addition and subtraction: Children will consolidate their use of written procedures in adding and subtracting whole numbers with up to 6 digits and also decimal numbers with up to 2 decimal places. Mental strategies for adding and subtracting increasingly large numbers will also be taught. These will draw upon children’s robust understanding of place value and knowledge of number facts. Negative numbers will be added and subtracted.

Multiplication and division: Efficient and flexible strategies for mental multiplication and division are taught and practised, so that children can perform appropriate calculations even when the numbers are large, such as 40 000 × 6 or 40 000 ÷ 8. In addition, it is in Years 5 and 6 that children extend their knowledge and confidence in using written algorithms for multiplication and division.

Fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio: Fractions and decimals are also added, subtracted, divided and multiplied, within the bounds of children’s understanding of these more complicated numbers. Children will also calculate simple percentages and ratios.

Year 5

Mental calculation

Written calculation

Default for ALL children

Y5
+

Know number bonds to 1 and to the next whole number

Add to the next 10 from a decimal number

e.g. 13·6 + 6·4 = 20

Add numbers with 2 significant digits only, using mental strategies

e.g. 3·4 + 4·8
e.g. 23 000 + 47 000

Add 1- or 2-digit multiples of 10, 100, 1000,

10 000 and 100 000

e.g. 8000 + 7000
e.g. 600 000 + 700 000

Add near multiples of 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000 to other numbers

e.g. 82 472 + 30 004

Add decimal numbers which are near multiples of 1 or 10, including money

e.g. 6·34 + 1·99
e.g. £34·59 + £19·95

Use place value and number facts to add two or more ‘friendly’ numbers, including money and decimals

e.g. 3 + 8 + 6 + 4 + 7

e.g. 0·6 + 0·7 + 0·4

e.g. 2056 + 44

Use column addition to add two or three whole numbers with up to 5 digits

Use column addition to add any pair of 2-place decimal numbers, including amounts of money

Begin to add related fractions using equivalences

e.g. 1/2 + 1/6 = 3/6 + 1/6

Choose the most efficient method in any given situation

Add numbers with only 2 digits which are not zeros

e.g. 3·4 + 5·8

Derive swiftly and without any difficulty number bonds to 100

Add ‘friendly’ large numbers using knowledge of place value and number facts

Use expanded column addition to add pairs of
4- and 5-digit numbers

Y5

Subtract numbers with 2 significant digits only, using mental strategies

e.g. 6·2 – 4·5
e.g. 72 000 – 47 000

Subtract 1- or 2-digit multiples of 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000

e.g. 8000 – 3000
e.g. 60 000 – 200 000

Subtract 1- or 2-digit near multiples of 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000 from other numbers

e.g. 82 472 – 30 004

Subtract decimal numbers which are near multiples of 1 or 10, including money

e.g. 6·34 – 1·99
e.g. £34·59 – £19·95

Use counting up subtraction, with knowledge of number bonds to 10, 100 or £1, as a strategy to perform mental subtraction

e.g. £10 – £3·45
e.g. 1000 – 782

Recognise fraction complements to 1 and to the next whole number

e.g. 1 2/5 + 3/5 = 2

Use compact or expanded column subtraction to subtract numbers with up to 5 digits

Use complementary addition for subtractions where the larger number is a multiple or near multiple of 1000

Use complementary addition for subtractions of decimal numbers with up to 2 places, including amounts of money

Begin to subtract related fractions using equivalences

e.g. 1/2 –  1/6 = 2/6

Choose the most efficient method in any given situation

Derive swiftly and without difficulty number bonds to 100

Use counting up with confidence to solve most subtractions, including finding complements to multiples of 1000

e.g. 3000 – 2387

Y5
×

Know by heart all the multiplication facts up to
12 × 12

Multiply whole numbers and 1- and 2-place decimals by 10, 100, 1000, 10 000

Use knowledge of factors and multiples in multiplication

e.g. 43 × 6 is double 43 × 3

e.g. 28 × 50 is 1/­­2 of 28 × 100 = 1400

Use knowledge of place value and rounding in mental multiplication

e.g. 67 × 199 as 67 × 200 – 67

Use doubling and halving as a strategy in mental multiplication

e.g. 58 × 5 is half of 58 × 10

e.g. 34 × 4 is 34 doubled twice

Partition 2-digit numbers, including decimals, to multiply by a 1-digit number mentally

e.g. 6 × 27 as 6 × 20 (120) plus 6 × 7 (42)

e.g. 6·3 × 7 as 6 × 7 (42) plus 0·3 × 7 (2·1)

Double amounts of money by partitioning

e.g. £37·45 doubled is £37 doubled (£74) plus 45p doubled (90p) giving a total of £74·90

Use short multiplication to multiply a 1-digit number by a number with up to 4 digits

Use long multiplication to multiply 3-digit and
4-digit numbers by a number between 11 and 20

Choose the most efficient method in any given situation

Find simple percentages of amounts

e.g. 10%, 5%, 20%, 15% and 50%

Begin to multiply fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers ≤ 10

e.g. 4 × 2/3 = 8/3 = 2 2/3

Know multiplication tables to 11 × 11

Multiply whole numbers and 1-place decimals by 10, 100 and 1000

Use knowledge of factors as aids to mental multiplication

e.g. 13 × 6 is double 13 × 3

e.g. 23 × 5 is 1/­­2 of 23 × 10

Use the grid method to multiply numbers with up to 4 digits by 1-digit numbers

Use the grid method to multiply 2-digit numbers by 2-digit numbers

Y5
÷

Know by heart all the division facts up to
144 ÷ 12

Divide whole numbers by 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 to give whole number answers or answers with
1, 2 or 3 decimal places

Use doubling and halving as mental division strategies

e.g. 34 ÷ 5 is (34 ÷ 10) × 2

Use knowledge of multiples and factors, as well as tests for divisibility, in mental division

e.g. 246 ÷ 6 is 123 ÷ 3

e.g. We know that 525 divides by 25 and
by 3

Halve amounts of money by partitioning

e.g. 1/2 of £75·40 = 1/2 of £75 (£37·50) plus half of 40p (20p) which is £37·70

Divide larger numbers mentally by subtracting the 10th or 100th multiple as appropriate

e.g. 96 ÷ 6 is 10 + 6, as 10 × 6 = 60 and
6 × 6 = 36

e.g. 312 ÷ 3 is 100 + 4 as 100 × 3 = 300 and
4 × 3 = 12

Know tests for divisibility by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 25

Know square numbers and cube numbers

Reduce fractions to their simplest form

Use short division to divide a number with up to
4 digits by a number ≤ 12

Give remainders as whole numbers or as fractions

Find non-unit fractions of large amounts

Turn improper fractions into mixed numbers and vice versa

Choose the most efficient method in any given situation

Know by heart division facts up to 121 ÷ 11

Divide whole numbers by 10, 100 or 1000 to give answers with up to 1 decimal place

Use doubling and halving as mental division strategies

Use an efficient written method to divide numbers ≤ 1000 by 1-digit numbers

Find unit fractions of 2- and 3-digit numbers

Year 6

Mental calculation

Written calculation

Default for ALL children

Y6
+

Know by heart number bonds to 100 and use these to derive related facts

e.g. 3·46 + 0·54

Derive, quickly and without difficulty, number bonds to 1000

Add small and large whole numbers where the use of place value or number facts makes the calculation do-able mentally

e.g. 34 000 + 8000

Add multiples of powers of 10 and near multiples of the same

e.g. 6345 + 199

Add negative numbers in a context such as temperature where the numbers make sense

Add two 1-place decimal numbers or two

2-place decimal numbers less than 1

e.g. 4·5 + 6·3
e.g. 0·74 + 0·33

Add positive numbers to negative numbers

e.g. Calculate a rise in temperature or continue a sequence beginning with a negative number

Use column addition to add numbers with up to 5 digits

Use column addition to add decimal numbers with up to 3 decimal places

Add mixed numbers and fractions with different denominators

Derive, swiftly and without difficulty, number bonds to 100

Use place value and number facts to add ‘friendly’ large or decimal numbers

e.g. 3·4 + 6·6
e.g. 26 000 + 54 000

Use column addition to add numbers with up to
4-digits

Use column addition to add pairs of 2-place decimal numbers

Y6

Use number bonds to 100 to perform mental subtraction of any pair of integers by complementary addition

e.g. 1000 – 654 as 46 + 300 in our heads

Use number bonds to 1 and 10 to perform mental subtraction of any pair of 1-place or

2-place decimal numbers using complementary addition and including money

e.g. 10  – 3·65 as 0·35 + 6

e.g. £50 – £34·29 as 71p + £15

Use number facts and place value to perform mental subtraction of large numbers or decimal numbers with up to 2 places

e.g. 467 900 – 3005
e.g. 4·63 – 1·02

Subtract multiples of powers of 10 and near multiples of the same

Subtract negative numbers in a context such as temperature where the numbers make sense

Use column subtraction to subtract numbers with up to 6 digits

Use complementary addition for subtractions where the larger number is a multiple or near multiple of 1000 or 10 000

Use complementary addition for subtractions of decimal numbers with up to 3 places, including money

Subtract mixed numbers and fractions with different denominators

Use number bonds to 100 to perform mental subtraction of numbers up to 1000 by complementary addition

e.g. 1000 – 654 as 46 + 300 in our heads

Use complementary addition for subtraction of integers up to 10 000

e.g. 2504 – 1878

Use complementary addition for subtractions of 1-place decimal numbers and amounts of money

e.g. £7·30 – £3·55

Y6
×

Know by heart all the multiplication facts up to
12 × 12

Multiply whole numbers and decimals with up to
3 places by 10, 100 or 1000

e.g. 234 × 1000 = 234 000

e.g. 0·23 × 1000 = 230

Identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers and use factors in mental multiplication

e.g. 326 × 6 is 652 × 3 which is 1956

Use place value and number facts in mental multiplication

e.g. 4000 × 6 = 24 000
e.g. 0·03 × 6 = 0·18

Use doubling and halving as mental multiplication strategies, including to multiply by 2, 4, 8, 5, 20, 50 and 25

e.g. 28 × 25 is a quarter of 28 × 100 = 700

Use rounding in mental multiplication

e.g. 34 × 19 as (34 × 20) – 34

Multiply 1- and 2-place decimals by numbers up to and including 10 using place value and partitioning

e.g. 3·6 × 4 is 12 + 2·4

e.g. 2·53 × 3 is 6 + 1·5 + 0·09

Double decimal numbers with up to 2 places using partitioning

e.g. 36·73 doubled is double 36 (72) plus double 0·73 (1·46)

Use short multiplication to multiply a 1-digit number by a number with up to 4 digits

Use long multiplication to multiply a 2-digit number by a number with up to 4 digits

Use short multiplication to multiply a 1-digit number by a number with 1 or 2 decimal places, including amounts of money

Multiply fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers

Multiply fractions by proper fractions

Use percentages for comparison and calculate simple percentages

Know by heart all the multiplication facts up to
12 × 12

Multiply whole numbers and 1- and 2-place decimals by 10, 100 and 1000

Use an efficient written method to multiply a

1-digit or a teen number by a number with up to 4 digits by partitioning (grid method)

Multiply a 1-place decimal number up to 10 by a number ≤ 100 using the grid method

Y6
÷

Know by heart all the division facts up to
144 ÷ 12

Divide whole numbers by powers of 10 to give whole number answers or answers with up to

3 decimal places

Identify common factors, common multiples and primes numbers and use factors in mental division

e.g. 438 ÷ 6 is 219 ÷ 3 which is 73

Use tests for divisibility to aid mental calculation

Use doubling and halving as mental division strategies, for example to divide by 2, 4, 8, 5, 20 and 25

e.g. 628 ÷ 8 is halved three times:
314, 157, 78·5

Divide 1- and 2-place decimals by numbers up to and including 10 using place value

e.g. 2·4 ÷ 6 = 0·4

e.g. 0·65 ÷ 5 = 0·13

e.g. £6·33 ÷ 3 = £2·11

Halve decimal numbers with up to 2 places using partitioning

e.g. Half of 36·86 is half of 36 (18) plus half of 0·86 (0·43)

Know and use equivalence between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts

Recognise a given ratio and reduce a given ratio to its lowest terms

Use short division to divide a number with up to
4 digits by a 1-digit or a 2-digit number

Use long division to divide 3-digit and 4-digit numbers by ‘friendly’ 2-digit numbers

Give remainders as whole numbers or as fractions or as decimals

Divide a 1-place or a 2-place decimal number by a number ≤ 12 using multiples of the divisors

Divide proper fractions by whole numbers

Know by heart all the division facts up to
144 ÷ 12

Divide whole numbers by 10, 100, 1000 to give whole number answers or answers with up to
2 decimal places

Use an efficient written method, involving subtracting powers of 10 times the divisor, to divide any number of up to 1000 by a
number ≤ 12

e.g. 836 ÷ 11 as 836 – 770 (70 × 11) leaving 66 which is 6 × 11, giving the answer 76

Divide a 1-place decimal by a number ≤ 10 using place value and knowledge of division facts